Nov. 16, 2015


By Charles M. Tatelbaum

A recent ruling by a judge of the US District Court for the Northern District of California has raised new concerns for directors of not only public companies, but also or private and closely held entities as well as managing members or directors of limited liability entities as to potential exposure which may be excluded from coverage by traditional directors’ and officers’ insurance policies.

The ruling by US District Judge Joseph Spero held that whistleblowers are allowed to seek compensation from directors of a company in addition to seeking recovery from the company itself for retaliation for being a whistleblower. Thus, if a whistleblower brings an action against the company for improper termination, retaliation or other wrongs associated with the whistleblower’s activities, the individual directors can be named as defendants in the litigation.  According to Judge Spero, few courts have taken up the issue, but he held that the financial regulations laws of both the Sarbanes-Oxley legislation and the Dodd-Frank legislation did not intend to shield directors of a company, where they serve on the board, retaliated or took other improper action against the whistleblower employees.  Although the ruling only applied to the corporation involved in the case before the court, it appears that the same ruling would apply to a managing member or director of a limited liability entity.

This ruling reinforces the need for members of boards of directors and others in control of corporate/limited liability entities to make sure that procedures are not only in place but also implemented to protect whistleblowers from retaliation, and also, similar to situations with harassment in the workplace, senior executives or designated board members are charged with the responsibility of overseeing the implementation of the policies and procedures.

Of even greater concern is the fact that retaliation against a whistleblower may be deemed to be an intentional act, even though it may be an act of omission by a director or other insured, in most situations, such intentional acts are excluded from insurance coverage in traditional directors’ and officers’ insurance policies. Corporate directors need to explore the exact nature of the coverage which they received from existing insurance policies, and make sure, if possible, that they are protected if a whistleblower were to name the directors as defendants.

While this ruling may only have persuasive effect in California, the reasoning set forth by the judge could most certainly lead to similar rulings throughout the country. Too often, directors of a closely held corporate entities pay little attention to the nature and extent of coverage under directors’ and officers’ insurance afforded to them, only to find to their chagrin when an action is filed that they are not covered.

This ruling is a wake-up call to all directors and managing members to not only ensure that policies and procedures are in place to effectively deal with whistleblower claims so that there can be no retaliation, but also to insist on updated and expanded insurance coverage.



Christina V. Paradowski has been elected chair-elect of Hispanic Unity of Florida’s (HUF) board of directors

FORT LAUDERDALE, Fla., February 19, 2021 – Tripp Scott, P.A. is proud to announce that Christina V. Paradowski, a director with the firm’s creditors’ rights and bankruptcy practice, has been elected chair-elect of Hispanic Unity of Florida’s (HUF) board of directors. 

“As someone who truly believes in HUF’s mission, it’s an honor to be elected chair-elect of their board of directors,” said Paradowski. “Hispanic Unity provides a community to help our neighbors acclimate to their new lives and gives them the tools so that they can fulfill their potential as civically, socially, and professionally engaged members of our community. I look forward to continuing to serve with my fellow board members as we find ways to expand HUF’s impact in South Florida.”

Shareholders clauses strengthen business, avoid litigation

As Published in Florida Trend

Partners often go into business together with the best of plans. But what happens when those plans go awry? Ideas for the business’s future may stray in different directions, partners may accuse each other of self-dealing, or one may give a spouse or family member an ownership stake — and a say in the business’s future. 50/50 disputes, selling or bequeathing of shares or ownership, minority ownership rights, and other such issues are not wholly unpredictable. Yet just like credit and debt, tax liabilities, or competition and market forces, shareholder disputes can have a material impact on the business.

Can You Count On Your Employer to Help You Get the Covid-19 Vaccine?

Employers may offer transportation or other incentives, but getting actual shots to workers remains unlikely—for now

With the Covid-19 vaccine slowly rolling out, many workers are wondering whether they can count on their employer to help them get shots.

Start a Conversation

The use of the Internet or this form for communication with the firm or any individual member of the firm does not establish an attorney-client relationship. Confidential or time-sensitive information should not be sent through this form.